1 a member of a social and cultural elite (especially a descendant of an old New England family); "a Boston Brahman" [syn: brahman]
2 a member of the highest of the four Hindu varnas; "originally all brahmans were priests" [syn: brahman]
3 the highest of the four varnas: the priestly or sacerdotal category [syn: brahman]
4 any of several breeds of Indian cattle; especially a large American heat and tick resistant grayish humped breed evolved in the Gulf States by interbreeding Indian cattle and now used chiefly for crossbreeding [syn: Brahman, Brahma, Bos indicus]
EtymologyAnglicised from etyl sa sc=Deva.
- a Hindu priestly caste; one of the four varnas or social groups based on occupation in ancient Hindu society
- one who has realized or attempts to realize Brahman, i.e. God or supreme knowledge
- scholar, teacher, priest, intellectual, researcher, scientist, knowledge-seeker, or knowledge worker
- social and cultural elite, especially in the New England region of the USA
- a learned person of refined taste and mild manners
- Note that the word "Brahmin" is also known as "Brahman" in English due to some translation issues between the Upanishads (Hindu Holy Texts) and modern English*
Brahmin, in Hinduism, traditionally refers to the priestly caste or a member of this caste in the Hindu caste system. The Sanskrit word denotes the scholar/teacher, priest, caste, class (), or tribe, that has been traditionally enjoined to live a life of learning, teaching and non-possessiveness . The Sanskrit terms and ("belonging to Brahman") are also used. The English word brahmin is an anglicised form of Sanskrit word brāhmana, however they are not necessarily the same things. Whilst brahma loosely translated means knowledge and one with such knowledge a brahmin, historically and in the vedic sense the acquisition of this knowledge was not confined to one belonging to the brahmin caste. Anyone could acquire brahman. Perhaps over time the group in society entrusted to acquire and preserve this brahma calcified into a caste grouping not unlike other ancient societies which also developed a priestly class for the same reasons.
Brahmins are also called Vipra "inspired", or Dvija "twice-born".
In 1931 (the last Indian census to record caste), Brahmins accounted for 4.32% of the total population. Brahmins even in Uttar Pradesh, where they were most numerous, constituted just 9% of the recorded population. In Tamil Nadu they formed less than 3% and in Andhra Pradesh, less than 2%. In Kerala, Nambudiri Brahmins make up 0.7% of the population.
HistoryThe history of the Brahmin community in India begins with the Vedic religion of early Hinduism, also known as Sanatana Dharma, in ancient India. The Vedas are the primary source of knowledge for brahmin practices. All the sampradayas of Brahmins take inspiration from the Vedas. According to Brahmin tradition, it is believed that Vedas are and anādi (beginning-less), but are revealed truths of eternal validity. The Vedas are considered Śruti (that which is heard, signifying their validity or relevance and hence the Vedas are considered Srutis that which have been heard and are the paramount source of Brahmin traditions and is believed to be divine. These Srutis include not only the four Vedas (the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda), but also their respective Brahmanas. Brahman and Brahmin are not the same. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self or God of Hindus. Brahmin or Brahmana refers to the caste of an individual. The brahmins are scholars, teachers and priests. Additionally, the word Brahma refers to first of the gods and Brahman, the Supreme God.
The Brahmin castes may be broadly divided into two regional groups: Pancha-Gauda Brahmins and Pancha-Dravida Brahmins as per the shloka,however this sloka is from Rajatarangini of Kalhana which is composed only in 11th CE and many communities find their traces from sages mentioned in, much older Vedas and puranas.
कर्णाटकाश्च तैलंगा द्राविडा महाराष्ट्रकाः, गुर्जराश्चेति पञ्चैव द्राविडा विन्ध्यदक्षिणे || सारस्वताः कान्यकुब्जा गौडा उत्कलमैथिलाः, पन्चगौडा इति ख्याता विन्ध्स्योत्तरवासि ||
Translation: Karnataka, Telugu (Andhra), Dravida (Tamil and Kerala), Maharashtra and Gujarat are Five Southern (Panch Dravida). Saraswata, Kanyakubja, Gauda, Utkala, Maithili are Five Northern (Pancha Gauda). This classification occurs in Rajatarangini of Kalhana and is mentioned by Jogendra Nath Bhattacharya in "Hindu Castes and Sects."
Pancha Gauda BrahminsPanch Gaur (the five classes of Northern India): 1) Saraswat, 2) Kanyakubja, 3) Gauḍa brahmins, 4) Utkala Brahmin, and 5) Maithil Brahmin. In addition, for the purpose of giving an account of Northern Brahmins each of the provinces must be considered separately, such as, North Western Provinces and Pakistan, Gandhar, Punjab, Kashmir, Sindh, Rajputana, Kurukshetra, Nepal, ayodhya (Oudh), Central India, Trihoot, Bihar, Orissa, Bengal, Assam etc. The originate from south of the (now-extinct) Saraswati River.
In Bihar, majority of Brahmins are Kanyakubja Brahmins and Maithil Brahmins with a significant population of Sakaldipi or Shakdweepiya Brahmins. The Bhumihars have regarded themselves as Brahmins.
In Rajasthan, the Brahmins are classified in mainly Dadhich_Brahmin, Gaud Brahmin, Sri Gaud Brahmin, Khandelwal Brahmin, Gujar-Gaud Brahmins.
In Madhya Pradesh, the Brahmins are classified in mainly Shri Gaud, Sanadya, Gujar-Gaud Brahmins. Majority of Shri Gaud Brahmins are found in the Malwa region (Indore, Ujjain, Dewas).
In Nepal, the hill Brahmins are classified in mainly Upadhaya Brahmin, Jaisi Brahmin and Kumain Brahmins. Upadhaya Brahmins are supposed to have settled in Nepal long before the other two groups.Majority of hill Brahmins are supposed to be of Khasa origin.
In Sindh, the saraswat brahmins from nasarpur of sindh province are called Nasarpuri Sindh Saraswat Brahmin. During the India and Pakistan partition migrated to India from sindh province.
Pancha Dravida BrahminsPanch Dravida (the five classes of Southern India): 1) Andhra, 2) Dravida (Tamil and Kerala), 3) Karnataka, 4) Maharashtra and Konkon, and 5) Gujarat. They originate from north of the (now-extinct) Saraswati River.
In Andhra Pradesh, Brahmins are broadly classified into 2 groups: Vaidika (meaning educated in vedas and performing religious vocations) and Niyogi (performing only secular vocation). They are further divided into several sub-castes. However, majority of the Brahmins, both Vaidika and Niyogi, perform only secular professions.
In Kerala, Brahmins are classified into three groups: Namboothiris, Pottis and Pushpakas. (Pushpakas are commonly clubbed with Ampalavasi community). The major priestly activities are performed by Namboothiris while the other temple related activities known as Kazhakam are performed by Pushpaka Brahmins and other Ampalavasis. Sri Adi Shankara was born in Kalady, a village in Kerala, to a Namboothiri Brahmin couple, Shivaguru and Aryamba, and lived for thirty-two years. The Namboothiri Brahmins, Potti Brahmins and Pushpaka Brahmins in Kerala follow the Philosophies of Sri Adi Sankaracharya. The Brahmins who migrated to Kerala from Tamil Nadu are known as Pattar in Kerala. They possess almost same status of Potti Brahmins in Kerala.
In Tamil Nadu, Brahmins belong to 2 major groups: Iyer and Iyengar. Iyers comprise of Smartha and Saivite Brahmins and are broadly classified into Vadama, Vathima, Brhatcharnam, Ashtasahasram, Sholiyar and Gurukkal. There are mostly followers of Adi Shankaracharya and form about three-fourths of Tamil Nadu's Brahmin population. Iyengars comprise of Vaishnavite Brahmins and are divided into two sects: Vadagalai and Thengalai. They are mostly followers of Ramanuja and make up the remaining one-fourth of the Tamil Brahmin population.
In Karnataka, Brahmins belong to 3 major groups: Smarthas, the followers of Sri Adi Shankaracharya, Madhvas (or Vaishnavas) who are the followers of Sri Madhvacharya, and Sri-Vaishnavas (Iyengars), who are the followers of Sri Ramanujacharya and Srimathe Vedanta Desika. Smartha Brahmins of Karnataka include Hoysala Karnataka, Mysore Iyers, Babboor Kammi, Ulucha Kamme, Babboor Kamme, Sankethi, Badaganadu, Mulukanadu, Sthanika Brahmins, Kota and Havyaka Brahmins
In Maharashtra, Brahmins are classified into four groups: Chitpavan Konkanastha Brahmins, Deshastha Brahmin and Karhade Brahmin, Devrukhe. As the name indicates, Kokanastha Brahmin are from Konkan area. Deshastha Brahmin are from plains of Maharashtra, Karhade Brahmins are perhaps from Karhatak (an ancient region in India that included present day south Maharashtra and northern Karnataka) and Devrukhe brahmins are from Devrukh near Ratnagiri
In Gujarat, Brahmins are classified into Eight groups: Anavil Brahmin, Awadhich Brahmins, Bardai Brahmins, Girinarayan Brahmins, Khedaval, Nagar Brahmins, Shrimali Brahmins and Sidhra-Rudhra Brahmins.
Gotras and pravarassee also Classification of Brahmins In general, gotra denotes any person who traces descent in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor. Panini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as ' apatyam pautraprabh*rti gotram' (IV. 1. 162), which means 'the word gotra denotes the progeny (of a sage) beginning with the son's son. When a person says ' I am Kashypasa-gotra' he means that he traces his descent from the ancient sage Kashyapa by unbroken male descent. According to the Baudhâyanas'rauta-sûtra Viśvāmitra, Jamadagni, Bharadvâja, Gautama, Atri, Vasishtha, Kashyapa and Agastya are 8 sages; the progeny of these eight sages is declared to be gotras. This enumeration of eight primary gotras seems to have been known to Pānini.Any way these gotras are not directly connected to Prajapathy or latter brama. The offspring (apatya) of these eight are gotras and others than these are called ' gotrâvayava '.
The gotras are arranged in groups, e. g. there are according to the Âsvalâyana-srautasûtra four subdivisions of the Vasishtha gana, viz. Upamanyu, Parāshara, Kundina and Vasishtha (other than the first three). Each of these four again has numerous sub-sections, each being called gotra. So the arrangement is first into ganas, then into pakshas, then into individual gotras. The first has survived in the Bhrigu and Āngirasa gana. According to Baud, the principal eight gotras were divided into pakshas. The pravara of Upamanyu is Vasishtha, Bharadvasu, Indrapramada; the pravara of the Parâshara gotra is Vasishtha, Shâktya, Pârâsharya; the pravara of the Kundina gotra is Vasishtha, Maitrâvaruna, Kaundinya and the pravara of Vasishthas other than these three is simply Vasishtha. It is therefore that some define pravara as the group of sages that distinguishes the founder (lit. the starter) of one gotra from another.
There are two kinds of pravaras, 1) sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara, and 2) putrparampara. Gotrapravaras can be ekarsheya, dwarsheya, triarsheya, pancharsheya, saptarsheya, and up to 19 rishis. Kashyapasa gotra has at least two distinct pravaras in Andhra Pradesh: one with three sages (triarsheya pravara) and the other with seven sages (saptarsheya pravara). This pravara may be either sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara or putraparampara. When it is sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara marriage is not acceptable if half or more than half of the rishis are same in both bride and bridegroom gotras. If it is putraparampara, marriage is totally unacceptable even if one rishi matches.
Sects and rishisDue to the diversity in religious and cultural traditions and practices, and the Vedic schools which they belong to, Brahmins are further divided into various subcastes. During the sutra period, roughly between 1000 BCE to 200 BCE, Brahmins became divided into various Shakhas (branches), based on the adoption of different Vedas and different rescension Vedas. Sects for different denominations of the same branch of the Vedas were formed, under the leadership of distinguished teachers among Brahmins.
There are several Brahmin law givers such as Angirasa, Apasthambha, Atri, Brihaspati, Boudhayana, Daksha, Gautam, Harita, Katyayana, Likhita, Manu, Parasara, Samvarta, Shankha, Shatatapa, Ushanasa, Vashishta, Vishnu, Vyasa, Yajnavalkya and Yama. These twenty-one rishis were the propounders of Smritis. The oldest among these smritis are Apastamba, Baudhayana, Gautama, and Vasishta Sutras.
Descendants from rishisMany Indians and non-Indians claim descent from the Vedic Rishis of both Brahmin and non-Brahmin descent. For example the Dash and Nagas are said to be the descendants of Kashyapa Muni, the Gotamas (including Lord Buddha apart from the Gautam Brahmins are said to descendants of Gautama Muni. It is also believed that Buddha was a descendant of the Vedic Angirasa Muni. Visvakarmas are the descendants of Pancha Rishis or Brahmarshies. According to Yajurveda and brahmanda purana They are Sanagha ,Sanathana,Abhuvanasa,Prajnasa, Suparnasa. The Kani tribe of South India claim to descend from Agastya Muni.
The Gondhali, Kanet, Bhot, Lohar, Dagi, and Hessis claim to be from Renuka Devi.
The Kasi Kapadi Sudras claim to originate from the Brahmin Sukradeva. Their duty was to transfer water to the sacred city of Kashi.
Dadheech Brahmins/dayama brahmin trace their roots from Dadhichi Rishi. Many Jats clans claim to descend from Dadhichi Rishi while the Dudi Jats claim to be in the linear of Duda Rishi.
Lord Buddha of course, was a descendant of Angirasa through Gautama. There too were Kshatiryas of other clans to whom members descend from Angirasa, to fulfill a childless king's wish.
The backward-caste Matangs claim to descend from Matang Muni, who became a Brahmin by his karma.
The nomadic tribe of Kerala, the Kakkarissi according to one legend are derived from the mouth of Garuda, the vehicle of Vishnu, and came out Brahmin.
The Sikhwal (also known as Sukhwal or Shringi) Brahmins of Rajasthan claim descent from Ṛṣyaśṛńga.
Brahmins taking up other dutiesBrahmins have taken on many professions - from being priests, ascetics and scholars to warriors and businesspeople. Viswa Brahmins (goldsmiths, blacksmiths, carpenters, sculptors and brass workers) are Poursheya Brahmins.They are scattered all over India in various surnames such as Achary,Acharya, Panchal, Vishwakarman, and so on. In Andhra Pradesh (AP), goldsmiths, blacksmiths, carpenters, sculptors and brass workers formed the Viswa Brahmin Sangham for retrieving the vedic phylosophy of viswakarma brahmanism i.e., the creative work is the supreme way of worshiping the Almighty. Viswa-Brahmins comprise 35 percent of the population in Visakhapatnam-I Assembly constituency, the second largest segment after fishermen in the district. Viswa-Brahmins are nine per cent in AP's population.
There are Viswajna Brahmins[Goldsmiths] in Goa, Kulala brahmin[potters] Nayee Brahmins (barbers) Muslim Brahmins, e.g., the group known as Hussaini Brahmin are the disciples of Imam Hussian, grandson of the Muslim prophet Muhammad. (see below for more on these Muslims).
Brahmins with the qualities of Kshatriyas are known as 'Brahmakshatriyas'. An example is the avatara Parshurama who destroyed the entire Haiheyas 21 times. Not only did Sage Parashurama have warrior skills but he was so powerful that he could even fight without the use of any weapons and trained others to fight without weapons. The Pallavas were an example of Brahmakshatriyas as that is what they called themselves. King Lalitaditya Muktapida of Kashmir ruled all of India and even Central Asia according to many historians.
Today there is a caste, Brahmakhatris, who are a clan of the Khatris, however this is suspicious since Khatris are a business caste/community of Punjab and belong to the Vaishya caste. Khatri has often been misinterpreted as a variation of the word Kshatriya, meaning warrior, however there are no records of any Khatri kingdoms or empires in Indian history and this claim to Kshatriya is recently made in the 20th century.
Perhaps the word Brahma-kshatriya refers to a person belonging to the heritage of both castes. However, among the Royal Rajput households, brahmins who became the personal teachers and protectors of the Royal princes rose to the status of Raj-Purohit and taught the princes everything including martial arts. They would also become the keepers of the Royal lineage and its history. They would also be the protectors of the throne in case the regent was orphaned and a minor.
Kshatriyan Brahmin is a term associated with people of both caste's components.
The Suta caste are charioters descended from a Kshatriya father and Brahmin mother.
King Rudravarma of Champa (Vietnam) of 657 A.D. was the son of a Brahmin father.
King Jayavarma I of Kambuja (Kampuchea) of 781 A.D. was a Brahma-kshatriya.
Brahmins with the qualities of a Vaisya or merchant are known as 'Brahmvyasya'. An example of such persons are people of the Ambastha caste, which exist in places like South India and Bengal. They perform medical work - they have from ancient times practiced the Ayurveda and have been Vaidyas (or doctors).
Many Pallis of South India claim to be Brahmins (while others claim to be Agnikula Kshatriyas.) Kulaman Pallis are nicknamed by outsiders as Kulaman Brahmans.
Brahmins adhere to the principles of Brahmanism or Sanatana Dharma or Hinduism, such as acceptance of the Vedas with reverence, adherence to the position that the means or ways to salvation and realization of the ultimate truth are diverse, that God is one, but has innumerable names and forms to chant and worship due to our varied perceptions, cultures and languages. Brahmins believe in — Let the entire society be happy and prosperous and — the whole world is one family. Many Brahmins are not only reformers, but also atheists and communists. Most Brahmins today practice vegetarianism or lacto-vegetarianism. There are some Brahmins who are non-vegetarians, mainly the Brahmins of cold mountain areas like Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Nepal, and coastal areas like Bengal, who are fish eaters. However, even the meat eating Brahmins shun beef in India and some American and Western Brahmins eat beef.
The six duties of Brahmin are given as per the Sloka
adhyāpanam adhyāyānam yajanam yajanam tathā dānam pratigraham caiva brahmanānāmakalpayāt
Teaching, study (svādhyāya), performing Yajna, make performing Yajna, accept Daana, and give Daana are the six duties of a Brahmin.
samodamastapah saucham kshanthirārjavamevaca jnanam vijnānamāstikyam brahmakarma svabhavajam
The Brahmins are expected to have control of their emotions, control of senses, purity, truthfulness, tolerance, simplicity, renounce material wealth and have sustenance from other community, belief in God, and studying and teaching of sacred scriptures.
The daily routine includes performing
The last two named Yajnas are performed in only a few households today. Brahmacharis perform Agnikaryam instead of Agnihotra or Aupasana. The other rituals followed include Amavasya tarpanam and Shraddha.
SamskarasBrahmins also perform sixteen major Samskaras (rites) during the course of their lifetime.
- In the pre-natal stage,
- Garbhadharana (conception),
- Pumsavana (rite for consecrating a male child in the womb) and
- Simantonnayana (rite for parting the hair of a pregnant woman) are performed.
- During infancy,
- During childhood and adolescence of the child,
- During adulthood,
SampradayasThe three sampradayas (traditions) of Brahmins, especially in South India are the Smarta sampradaya, the Srivaishnava sampradaya and the Madhva sampradaya.
VaishnavismSrivaishnava sampradaya and the Madhva sampradaya are the two major Vaishnavite sects. From these two were influenced several other Vaishnavite sects such as the Ramananda Sampraday, and Ramdassi Sampraday. The chief propounder of the Sri Vaishnava Sampradaya was Ramanuja while Madhava was the founder of the Madhav Sampraday. The Pushtimarg Sampraday, founded by Vallabh Acharya is yet another sect influenced by the other two major Vaishnavite sect.
Vaishnavism included many sect such as the Swaminarayan Sampraday.
There are many members of the Swaminarayan Sampraday founded by Bhagwan Swaminarayan, born as Ghanshyam Pande a Vaishnavite Brahmin of present-day Uttar Pradesh. He later settled in Gujarat, wherein the highest density of sampraday members live. This is a Vaishnavite sect. This sect was founded in the latter part of the 18th century.
There is also the Varkari Sampraday, which worships Sri Krishna as "Vithal". The word "Varkari" means travelers because members of this sect travel from their home towns on a pilgrimage to Pandharpur, almost always on foot! Important saints of this movement were the Brahmins Dnyaneshwar, Muktabai as well as several non-Brahmin icons.
There is also the Mahanubhava sampraday founded by King Cakradhara, known popularly to members as Sri Chakradhar Swami, in the 12th century. The members of this sect worship Lord Vishnu in His five forms; Lord Krishna, Lord Sri Dattatreya, Lord Sri Chakrapani, Lord Sri Govindaprabhu, and Lord Cakradhara (the founder Himself).
The Shaiva Brahmins have important icons such as, Basava Swami of Karnataka, Kungiliya Kalaya Nayanar or Tamil Nadu, and Lakulisa of Gujarat.
Other sectsThere are additional sampradayas as well which are not as widely followed as the rest.
The Mahima Dharma or "Satya Mahima Alekha Dharma" was founded by the Brahmin Mukanda Das of present-day Orissa, popularly know by followers as Mahima Swami according to the Bhima Bhoi text. He was born in the last part of 18th century in Baudh ex-state as a son of Ananta Mishra. He was Brahmin by caste as mentioned in Mahima Vinod of Bhima Bhoi in Vol.11. This sampradaya is similar to Vaishnavism. Although the members of this sect do not worship Lord Vishnu as their Ishta-Deva, they believe that the Srimad Bhagavatam is sacred. The founder of this sect was a Vaishnavite before founding the new order. This sampradaya was founded in the latter part of the 18th century.
There is also the Avadhoot Panth, wherein Lord Dattertaya and his forms such as Narasimha Saraswati and Sai Baba of Shirdi are worshiped. Lord Dattatreya is worshiped by many as the Hindu trinity - Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva in one divine entity. Many even worship Dattatreya as an avatar of Vishnu or of Shiva.
Brahmins in BuddhismBrahmins feature extensively in Buddhist canonical texts i.e. the Tripitaka, and are found among the chief disciples of the Buddha. The Brahmana Varga (section on Brahmins) contained in the Dharmapada lists down the Buddha's views on Brahmins
- Abhaya Raja (built Mahabouddha temple with his descendants in Patan, Nepal in year 1604)
- Asvaghosa (wrote the 'Buddhacharita' and is considered along with Nagarjuna to have founded the Mahayana). His philosophy was favored in the court of King Kanishka.
- Bhitka (Buddha's fifth successor)
- Cuda Panthaka
- Harita (wrote the "Harita Dharmasutra")
- Kamashila (Kashmiri Pandit)
- Kumarajiva (was imprisoned in China for spreading Buddhism)
- Kanaka (Yamantaka Tantra)
- Manjushri (The mentor of Asoka)
- Padma (woman)
- Palden Dekyong
- Pingala-Koccha (preached to the Buddha the Cūlasāropama Sutta, after which he became a dedicated student of the Buddha)
- Radhasvami (another mentor of Asoka)
- Narpola (student of Tipola)
- Sahara (master of Tipola)
- Shantarakshita (Kashmiri Pandit)
- Subrahman (coming father of Bodhisattva Maitreya)
- Tipola (Mahasiddha, from modern-day Bangladesh)
Brahmin BodhisattvasAryadeva (successor of Nagarjuna) Asangha (from Hinayana sect and Peshwar city founded the Yogacarya and established the Classical age of Buddhism)
- Nagasena (the famous teacher of the milindapanha)
- Bodhidharma (royalty of Pallava, from Kanchi) that went to China
- Nagarjuna (founded the Shunyata concept and considered along with Asvaghosa to have founded the Mahayana)
- Vasubandhu (Brother of Asanga and one of founders of the yogacara school - only historical Buddhist to be called the 'second Buddha')
- Dignaga (5th century Buddhist logician from Kanchipuram)
- Dharmakirti (7th century Buddhist logician from Andhra)
- Buddhaghosa (5th century Pali scholar who led the revival of the Theravaada)
- Kusanda Buddha
- Konagamana Buddha
- Kasyapsa Buddha
- Maitreya (Bodhisattva to come)
- Padmasambhava (founder of Vajrayana Buddhism)
Scriptures dedicated to Brahmin bhikkusBecause of the aim of the Brahmins, and the Buddha following on their path, several Buddhist texts have been dedicated to them.
- Annatara Brahmana Sutta: To a Brahmin
- Aññatra Sutta: To a certain Brahman (SN XII.46)
- Brahmana Sutta 1: To Unnabha the Brahman
- Cankii Sutta: To the Brahmin Cankii
- Esukaari Sutta: To the Brahmin Esukari
- Janussoni Brahmana Sutta: To the Brahmin Janussoni
- Ganakamoggallaanasuttam B: To the Brahmin Ganakamoggallaana
- Paccha-bhumika Sutta: To Brahmins of the Western Land (SN XLII.6)
- Saleyyaka Sutta A: The Brahmins of Sela
- Saleyyaka Sutta B: The Brahmans of Salahar"
In kingdomsThere have been Brahmin Buddhists too in Buddhist kingdoms.
- In Cambodia (Sanskrit Kambhoja) there is an edict saying that King Jayavarman and his son Rudravarman build a monument in dedication of Lord Buddha and appointed a Brahmin to protect it.
- In Sri Lanka, Maha Adigar was the first Buddhist emperor of Sri Lanka, converting many to Buddhism.
- In 120 BC, the Indo-Greek King Milinda converted to Buddhism under sage Nagasena.
- The Shunga Dynasty is thought by neo-Buddhists as an anti-Buddhist dynasty but the Shungas themselves built a stupa dedicated to the Buddha at Baharut.
Brahmins in Jainism
- The first convert of Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism was Indrabhuti (aka Gautamswami) the Brahmin, who headed a group of other Brahmins and converted them to Jainism. He was from the village Gobbar (also called Govarya) near Rajgriha. It is said that at the sight of Gautama, the tapsas who were competing with him to reach the top of a hill once, by seeing the winner Gautama at the top, achieved moksha.
- Sajjambhava was another born from Rajgriha and was elected the head of the Jain temple. He is famous for his composition of the "Dasavaikalika Sutra."
- Acharya Vidyanand is a Brahmin of the Dhigambar Jain sect and compiled in the Sanskrit language, "Ashta Shahastri" with eight thousand verses.
- Acharya Shushil Kumar, known better to Jains as "Guruji", was born a Vaidik in the Shakarpur village of the Haryana province. At the age of 15, he took Diksha (became a sanyassin) into the Sthanakvasi, a Swhetambara sub-sect.
- There is also a story about a wealthy Brahmin named Dhangiri in the town of Tumbhivan, who, when heard the sermons of the Jain Acharya Sinhgiri, while he regularly listened to but later lost his interest in wealth and decided to take the Diksha.
- Umasvati was a composer who was so loved by Jains that he is considered by the Dhigambar sect to be a Dhigambar member and the Svetambara sect to be a Svetambara member.
- The Jain Acharya Bhadrabahu of Pundravardhana is said to be the preceptor of Chandragupta Maurya of the Mauryan dynasty, grandfather of Ashoka the Buddhist ruler.
- A copperplate grant from the Gupta period found in the vincity of Somapura mentioned a Brahmin donating land to a Jain vihara at Vatagohali.
- A Brahmin general by the name of Vasudeva in the army of Kamadeva in the Vijayaditya dynasty had built a temple to Lord Parshvanath.
- The Kadamba kings of Palasika were Jain Brahmins who supported Jainism and gave land grants and erected many temples and hence, patronised Jainism. This supports the view that Jainism entered South India through the West and perhaps from Ujjayini itself.
- King Mrigesavarman of the Kadamba dynasty of palasika further went on to give grants to Yapaniyas, Nigranthas and Kurchakas.
- The Brahmin Haribhadra was a pupil of Jinabhadra (or Jinabhata) and Jinadatta and later received the title of "Suri" (an honorable epithet of learning Jain monks.)
Contributions to modern India
Brahmins have immensely contributed to the making of modern India and to the world in fields such as literature, science and technology, politics, culture, and religion.
Brahmins traditionally played an extraordinary role in the spread of knowledge, sustaining the culture and revitalizing the Indian society for millennia. Recently, in the freedom movement and national reformation movements they proved their mettle by playing their traditional role as usual. Brahmins' contribution in fighting against the British imperialism was immense.
Their role and participation was great in various legislative bodies. During the Indian independence movement, many Brahmins, including Mangal Pandey,(Bhumihar), Nana Sahib, Rani Laxmibai of Jhansi, Tatya Tope, Chandrashekar Azad, Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee, Balgangadhar Tilak, Swami Sahajanand Saraswati,(Bhumihar), Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Rajguru, Ramprasad Bismil, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, C. Rajagopalachari, Gobind Ballabh Pant, Kamalapati Tripathi, Ravishankar Shukla, Kailashnath Katju, Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru, Motilal Nehru, DP Misra, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, Basawon Singh (Sinha),(Bhumihar), to name just a few, were at the forefront of the struggle for freedom and later Indian politics. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India and Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, the first Vice President of India, were also Brahmins. Even veteran Communist leaders like Manabendra Nath Roy, E.M.S. Namboodiripad, Hiren Mukherjee, S.M. Dange and many others were Brahmins.
Other Brahmins who became prime ministers of India are Indira Gandhi, Morarji Desai, P.V. Narasimha Rao and Atal Behari Vajpayee.
Among the great Brahmin scholars and writers are Panini, Patanjali,Kalidas, Chanakya,Banabhatta,Goswami Tulsidas, Sur Das, Saint Dnyaneshwar, Eknath, Samarth Ramdas.Nobel laureates Rabindranath Tagore and V. S. Naipaul,(Bhumihar) and others like Jiddu Krishnamurthy, Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan,(Bhumihar), Hazariprasad Dwivedi,Sumitranandan Pant,Subramanya Bharathy, Tarashankar Bandopadhyay, Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar',(Bhumihar ),Ramvriksha Benipuri (Bhumihar), Suryakant Tripathi Nirala, Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Srilal Shukla and Manohar Shyam Joshi. The great Urdu poet Allama Iqbal was a descendant of a Kashmiri Sapru Brahmin family. Other great Brahmin scholars include Pandurang Vaman Kane, Ram Sharan Sharma and Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya,
Great Brahmin scientists include Aryabhatta, Varahamihira, Brahmagupta, Nobel Laureates Sir C.V.Raman and his nephew Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, the agricultural scientist M. S. Swaminathan, the ethno-sociologist MN Srinivas and the modern genius of mathematics Srinivasa Ramanujan, Shakuntala Devi and C. P. Ramanujam.
In the field of sports there's a long list of names in cricket - Sachin Tendulkar, Sunil Gavaskar, Ravi Shastri, Saurav Ganguly, Rahul Dravid, VVS Laxman, Anil Kumble, Ishant Sharma and many more; the world chess champion Vishwanathan Anand.
In entertainment, there's the legendary Lata Mangeshkar, Hrishikesh Mukherji, Basu Chatterji,Ashok Kumar, Kishore Kumar, Abhijeet, Alka Yagnik, Madhuri Dixit and many more. Tansen, the immortal musician of Akbar's court was born a Brahmin. Anupam Kher, Mausumi Chatterji, Chunki Pande, Hema Malini are also Brahmins.
In classical music, there's the legendary Bhimsen Joshi.
- . The Editorial Board for the First Edition included N. S. Sontakke (Managing Editor), V. K. , M. M. , and T. S. . This work is entirely in Sanskrit.
- A History of Brahmin Clans () in Hindi, by Dorilāl Śarmā,published by Rāśtriya Brāhamana Mahāsabhā, Vimal Building, Jamirābād, Mitranagar, Masūdābād,Aligarh-1, 2nd ed-1998. (This Hindi book contains the most exhaustive list of Brahmana gotras and pravaras together their real and mythological histories).
- Mayne's "Treatise on Hindu Law and Usage.
- Kane, Pandurang Vaman, "History of dharmasastra" (ancient and mediæval religious and civil law in India)
- Hindu Castes and Sects Jogendranath Bhattacharya.
- Andhra Viprula Gotramulu, Indla Perlu, Sakhalu by Emmesroy Sastri.
- History and Culture of Andhra Pradesh Rao PR.
- History of India Herman Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund.
- Acharalu sastriyata Narayanareddi Patil.
- Hindu Manners, Customs, and Ceremonies Abbe J. A. Dubois
- (Manusmriti) : Available online as The Laws of Manu
- Topics on Brahmins
- About Kerala Iyers, a.k.a Pattars , the brahmins who moved to Kerala centuries ago from Tamil Nadu
- List Of Andhra Brahmins And Surnames
- A Long List of Brahmin Castes and Sub-castes
- [http://.shakdweepiya.com Online Shakdweepiya Community]
- Online Shakdweepiya Community
- Shakdweepiya club
- - Information by Gujarati author
- Marriage and Matrimony for Brahmins - www.marryAbrahmin.com
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